English Phonology An Introduction Heinz J Giegerich Pdf 14
English phonology an introduction heinz j giegerich pdf 14
English phonology is the study of the sound system of the English language, including the patterns and rules that govern how sounds are organized and pronounced. English phonology is a complex and fascinating topic, as it reflects the history, diversity and evolution of the language. In this article, we will introduce some of the main aspects of English phonology, based on the book English Phonology: An Introduction by Heinz J. Giegerich. This book is a comprehensive and accessible textbook that covers the basic concepts and methods of phonological analysis, as well as the major features and phenomena of English phonology.
english phonology an introduction heinz j giegerich pdf 14
Speech sounds and their production
The first chapter of the book provides an overview of the speech sounds that make up the English language, and how they are produced by the human vocal tract. Speech sounds are classified into two main categories: vowels and consonants. Vowels are sounds that are produced with a relatively open vocal tract, allowing the air to flow freely. Consonants are sounds that are produced with a constriction or closure of some part of the vocal tract, creating friction or blocking the air flow. The book introduces the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), a system of symbols that represents each speech sound with a unique symbol. The IPA is useful for transcribing and comparing speech sounds across languages and dialects.
Towards a sound system for English: consonant phonemes
The second chapter of the book introduces the concept of phonemes, which are the smallest units of sound that can distinguish meaning in a language. For example, in English, the words bit and pit differ only in one sound, /b/ and /p/, which are phonemes. The book explains how to identify phonemes in a language, using minimal pairs (words that differ only in one sound) and complementary distribution (the situation where two sounds never occur in the same environment). The book also describes the consonant phonemes of English, using a set of features that capture their distinctive properties, such as place of articulation (where in the vocal tract the constriction occurs), manner of articulation (how the air flow is affected by the constriction), and voicing (whether the vocal cords vibrate or not).
Some vowel systems of English
The third chapter of the book describes the vowel phonemes of English, using a similar approach as for consonants. The book introduces the vowel quadrilateral, a diagram that represents the position and height of the tongue when producing different vowels. The book also explains how vowel length, stress and quality are related in English, and how different varieties of English may have different vowel systems. For example, British English has more vowel phonemes than American English, due to a historical process called the Great Vowel Shift.
Phonological features, part 1: the classification of English vowel phonemes
The fourth chapter of the book continues with the analysis of vowel phonemes, using a set of features that capture their distinctive properties, such as height (how high or low the tongue is), frontness (how far forward or back the tongue is), roundness (whether the lips are rounded or not), and tenseness (how much muscular effort is involved). The book also introduces diphthongs, which are vowels that involve a transition from one quality to another within a single syllable.
Phonological features, part 2: the consonant system
The fifth chapter of the book revisits the consonant system of English, using a more refined set of features that can account for more complex phenomena, such as aspiration (a puff of air that accompanies some voiceless stops), affrication (a combination of a stop and a fricative), palatalization (a secondary articulation involving raising the tongue towards the hard palate), and nasalization (a secondary articulation involving lowering the velum to allow air to escape through the nose). The book also discusses how some consonants can be syllabic, meaning that they can function as the nucleus of a syllable without a vowel.
The sixth chapter of the book introduces syllables, which are units of speech that consist of one or more sounds organized around a peak of sonority (loudness). The book explains how to identify and structure syllables in English, using the concepts of onset (the consonants that precede the peak), rhyme (the peak and the consonants that follow it), and coda (the consonants that follow the peak). The book also discusses how syllable structure can affect the pronunciation and distribution of sounds, such as vowel reduction, consonant cluster simplification, and syllable weight.
The seventh chapter of the book introduces word stress, which is the relative prominence of syllables within a word. The book explains how to assign and mark stress in English words, using the concepts of primary and secondary stress, stress patterns, and stress rules. The book also discusses how word stress can affect the pronunciation and meaning of words, such as vowel quality, consonant length, and lexical stress.
Phonetic representations: the realisations of phonemes
The eighth chapter of the book introduces phonetic representations, which are detailed transcriptions of how phonemes are actually pronounced in speech. The book explains how to use diacritics (additional symbols that modify the basic IPA symbols) to indicate various phonetic features, such as aspiration, nasalization, length, and tone. The book also discusses how phonetic representations can reveal the effects of phonological processes, such as assimilation (when one sound becomes more like a neighboring sound), deletion (when a sound is omitted), insertion (when a sound is added), and metathesis (when two sounds switch places).
Phrases, sentences and the phonology of connected speech
The ninth chapter of the book introduces the phonology of connected speech, which is the study of how sounds are organized and pronounced in larger units of speech, such as phrases and sentences. The book explains how to use prosodic features, such as intonation (the variation of pitch), rhythm (the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables), and juncture (the boundaries between words or phrases), to convey meaning and structure in speech. The book also discusses how connected speech can affect the pronunciation and interpretation of words, such as liaison (when a consonant at the end of a word is pronounced at the beginning of the next word), elision (when a sound or syllable is omitted), and weak forms (when a word is reduced to a less prominent form).
Representations and derivations
The tenth and final chapter of the book introduces representations and derivations, which are ways of showing how phonological rules apply to transform underlying forms (the abstract representations of words) into surface forms (the actual pronunciations of words). The book explains how to use phonological notation, such as brackets, slashes, arrows, and brackets, to indicate different levels of representation and different types of rules. The book also discusses how representations and derivations can account for various phonological phenomena, such as allophony (when a phoneme has more than one possible pronunciation), neutralization (when a contrast between two phonemes is lost), and morphophonemics (when the pronunciation of a word changes depending on its morphological structure).
This article has provided a brief summary of some of the main topics covered in English Phonology: An Introduction by Heinz J. Giegerich. This book is a valuable resource for anyone who wants to learn more about the sound system of English, as well as the methods and concepts of phonological analysis. The book is written in a clear and engaging style, with numerous examples, exercises, and references. It is suitable for both undergraduate and graduate students of linguistics, as well as teachers and researchers of English language and literature.
: Giegerich, H. J. (1992). English Phonology: An Introduction. Cambridge University Press.