English Phonology An Introduction Heinz J Giegerich Pdf 14
English phonology an introduction heinz j giegerich pdf 14
English phonology is the study of the sound system of the English language, including the patterns and rules that govern how sounds are organized and pronounced. English phonology is a complex and fascinating topic, as it reflects the history, diversity and evolution of the language. In this article, we will introduce some of the main aspects of English phonology, based on the book English Phonology: An Introduction by Heinz J. Giegerich. This book is a comprehensive and accessible textbook that covers the basic concepts and methods of phonological analysis, as well as the major features and phenomena of English phonology.
english phonology an introduction heinz j giegerich pdf 14
Speech sounds and their production
The first chapter of the book provides an overview of the speech sounds that make up the English language, and how they are produced by the human vocal tract. Speech sounds are classified into two main categories: vowels and consonants. Vowels are sounds that are produced with a relatively open vocal tract, allowing the air to flow freely. Consonants are sounds that are produced with a constriction or closure of some part of the vocal tract, creating friction or blocking the air flow. The book introduces the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), a system of symbols that represents each speech sound with a unique symbol. The IPA is useful for transcribing and comparing speech sounds across languages and dialects.
Towards a sound system for English: consonant phonemes
The second chapter of the book introduces the concept of phonemes, which are the smallest units of sound that can distinguish meaning in a language. For example, in English, the words bit and pit differ only in one sound, /b/ and /p/, which are phonemes. The book explains how to identify phonemes in a language, using minimal pairs (words that differ only in one sound) and complementary distribution (the situation where two sounds never occur in the same environment). The book also describes the consonant phonemes of English, using a set of features that capture their distinctive properties, such as place of articulation (where in the vocal tract the constriction occurs), manner of articulation (how the air flow is affected by the constriction), and voicing (whether the vocal cords vibrate or not).
Some vowel systems of English
The third chapter of the book describes the vowel phonemes of English, using a similar approach as for consonants.